11 Then I saw a great white throne and him who was seated on it. Earth and sky fled from his presence, and there was no place for them. 12 And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Another book was opened, which is the book of life. The dead were judged according to what they had done as recorded in the books. 13 The sea gave up the dead that were in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and each person was judged according to what he had done. 14 Then death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. The lake of fire is the second death. 15 If anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire. Continue reading
The first question one would ask when discussing the “judgment” of saints is, “for what?” Clearly scripture teaches that believers are not judged for their sin. Christ alone received the judgment for sin on the cross. Yet, scripture teaches that believers will undergo judgment. The purpose of judgment for believers will be demonstrated in this section to be a judgment for reward rather than a judgment for punishment. Continue reading
In Hebrew, the term translated “heaven” or “heavens” is shamayim, which is used about four hundred times in the Old Testament. “Heaven” is likewise translated into English from the Greek term ouranos or derivatives of it in the New Testament. Ouranos and shamayim have three distinct meanings in scripture. In both Greek and Hebrew culture and language, heaven was distinguished contextually to be one of three places: Continue reading
No term is associated with this text other than a description: “kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day.”
Tarturus is a Greek term found only in 2 Peter 2:4. Tartarus finds its roots in Greek mythology, being the lowest place of confinement in the Greek mythological underworld. Here, Peter uses the already known term in this singular biblical reference.
Interestingly, Tartarus is also mentioned in an extra-biblical book which has relevance in this study in another place; the pseudepigraphal book of Enoch, which describes Tartarus as a place where fallen angels who procreated with human women were confined until the day of Judgment. Continue reading
This name is noted several places in scripture. It refers to the literal Euphrates River, which begins in Russia and flows through Syria and Iraq, emptying into the Persian Gulf.
The Euphrates is first mentioned in the book of Genesis, being one of the four rivers coming out of Eden. Continue reading
This phrase occurs four times in scripture, each in the book of Revelation. Being a phrase of several very common terms, the “Lake of Fire” is a simple translation. It is found as “lake of fire and burning sulfur,” with slight variances, in three places, and simply “lake of fire” in the fourth. Variances are slight throughout numerous translations. Continue reading